Neurologic examinations

What is electroencephalography (EEG)?

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a diagnostic procedure to record the electrical activity of the brain. It is especially useful in diagnosing and monitoring abnormalities that are characteristic of epilepsy, but important clinical information can also be obtained for other disorders and diseases of the brain.

Clinical interpretation of EEG findings is not always straightforward as the findings can be adequately interpreted only with knowledge of the clinical picture and findings of other examinations. An EEG finding can best be interpreted by a neurologist or neuropediatrician who knows all the important information about a particular patient. EEG recording is harmless and can be repeated many times as needed.

What is electromioneurography (EMNG)?

Electromyoneurography (EMNG) is a technique that combines EMG and ENG.

Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to asses the health condition of muscles and the peripheral nerve cells that control them.

Electroneurography  (ENG) is a diagnostic procedure used to test and measure the nerve conduction and impulse propagation along peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

What are evoked potentials (EP)?

Evoked potential  (EP)are techniques that measure the time it takes for the brain to respond to sensory stimulation either through sight, sound, or touch. The most commonly used are visual (VEP), somatosensory (SEP) and auditory (BAEP according to Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials) evoked potentials.

What does a duplex ultrasound show?

Duplex ultrasound is a technique used to show the health of the arteries, that is, blood vessels that bring blood to the brain. Most often, the arteries in the neck are scanned and less often the arterial circulation within the bony structures of the head.

What are Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?

Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging technique that produces images of different organs, including the brain. X-rays are used for the scan, and it takes only a few minutes.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very useful for scanning the structure of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve exit from the spinal canal. However, due to a strong magnetic field, there are relative and absolute contraindications for undergoing MRI. Metal foreign bodies that are absolute contraindications include metal cerebral aneurysm clips, gunshot pellets near great vital organs, pacemaker. The functioning of electronic implants might be altered, so persons who have these devices are not allowed to enter the scan room or be scanned. An MRI scan takes much longer than a CT scan, and some people may have problems with claustrophobia. I

n terms of sensitivity and specificity, MRI generally provides more information than CT, but in some cases, the advantage may be on the CT side, especially when better availability and ease of use are considered.